The Great Necktie Debate!

My students have been doing research and data collection of microbial populations on neckties worn by their faculty. The project is described below in detail. We are currently still collecting and analyzing data. I imagine this phase will take approximately one more week before we transition into the actual analysis of findings and writing up the report. This is one of those awesome projects that will never be able to be replicated, unfortunately, but it has really required true meaningful work on the part of my students and I have been so impressed with their abilities and developed techniques when dealing with microbiology.

If you are interested in the process or the findings, please contact me.

Project-Based Learning Title: The Great Necktie Debate

Grade: 10th

Project idea: Students have been charged by a male faculty, who happens to dislike wearing ties on a daily basis, to see if there is a “health risk” to wearing ties as they contain a lot of microbes. This research spans all three sections of regular biology and these students have taken this charge and decided that they will research it.

The students in all three sections used the collective Google platform for uniform access to information. The students researched the historical purpose of the necktie, they have researched different career paths that have done away with idea of wearing a tie because of health concerns (dentists, doctors, etc…), the students designed the experiment and performed the experiment over the course of multiple weeks, students analyzed the data, and, students reported out the data in the form of a formal journal article.


DQ:
(My students are working on their scientific understanding and writing. Therefore, this DQ was formulated in the spirit of a hypothesis) If neck ties are swabbed for bacterial growth then large quantities of bacteria will be observed because neckties are worn for many years and rarely cleaned and therefore contain an excessive amount of microbes.


Content: 
microbial growth (microbiology), bacterial plating techniques (microbiology), bacterial species identification (microbiology)


Major Products:

  1. Swabbed ties of all Upper School male faculty and administrators
  2. Plate all tie bacteria on nutrient agar
  3. analyze plate growth and re-plate a colony for a pure culture
  4. Use excel to analyze data and create meaningful infographics
  5. Write a formal scientific paper describing research and explaining results
  6. Publish paper in Collegiate School Journal of Microbiology

Public Audience: US faculty; US Administrators; Alaina Campbell – Department of Biology, VCU; Dr. Berry Jacques – Tufts Medical University

 

 

sick-man-wearing-necktie

 

The Great Necktie Debate

It is difficult to determine exactly when the necktie first made its appearance, and exactly where. Some sources state that the necktie first appeared in the Chinese army, over 1000 years ago (Ashley, O., 2013). Other historians agree that the necktie appeared in the 17th century, during the 30-year war in France (Hendrick, 2013). Whatever the origin, the fact is that neckties have been a fundamental accessory for predominantly male fashion for centuries.

Though adding to the air of professionalism, there is potential for the necktie to be harboring potentially dangerous pathogens, especially in professions that have excessive contact with children or the sick. A study performed by researchers at the New York Medical Center of Queens found that nearly 50% of neckties worn by physicians harbored bacteria that can cause disease (Science Daily, 2004).

If neckties do harbor abnormal amounts of potentially pathogenic microbes, should faculty members in a school be required to wear them?

You have been hired by Virginia Commonwealth University’s Department of Microbiology to determine if neckties worn in a 9-12 school setting have an excessive amount of microbes contained on them. The results of your findings will be published in the Collegiate School’s Journal of Microbiology and you will be asked to present these findings at a national high school science conference.

 

Background:

The students are wrapping up their scientific method and process of science units, as well as moving quite quickly through their microbial pathogenesis unit. Prior lab work for these classes included: pouring agar plates, streaking plates with populations of E. coli, looking at antibiotic resistance of E.coli, looking at antimicrobial properties of E. coli and B. cereus with respect to common household cleaners, analyzing CFU (colony-forming units) growth on Petri dishes, practice using an incubator and practice using an autoclave.

Process:

I introduced this unit by playing this video, found in the beginning of this PowerPoint. On the video, a well-respected male faculty member in the upper school was interviewed and addressed his concerns about the potentially hazardous nature of wearing a necktie every day and he asked the students to gather data to support his hypothesis.

Research:

Students started by creating a google document shared between all three classes. The students volunteered themselves for various duties throughout the research. The students split into the following teams: Research & Problem, Hypothesis, Materials & Methods, Survey Team, Tie Swabbers, Petri Dish Inoculators, Petri Dish analyzers, Data analysts, Excel Professionals, and each student would contribute to the Conclusion and the formal writing process.

  • Research & Problem – students began by doing extensive research on the necktie and it’s historical purpose in male dress
  • Hypothesis – students created a working hypothesis in an If, then, because format (it should be noted that this took quite a long time for the students to agree on a workable hypothesis – good collaboration and communication of ideas)
  • Materials & Methods: determined how they were going to sample tie microbial growth and what materials they would need to do so. Students decided to sample all US male faculty and all administrators and compare the tie growth between the two divisions. Students decided that each tie swabber would need to sample with a partner who’s job was to gather data for the survey that correlated with the sampling work.
  • Tie Swabbers: students met in the teacher’s classroom each morning before school to gather materials, determine which teachers needed to be sampled, and would go out and sample as many ties as possible. The sampling process took two weeks of morning time.
  • Survey Team: students created a survey to correlate with the microbial data collected. The students asked faculty members how old their tie was, how often it was cleaned or dry cleaned, whether they liked wearing ties and whether they believed ties should be mandatory or not.
  • Petri Dish Team: this team was responsible for removing the petri dishes from the incubator, analyzing and recording the growth on the collective google sheet. After analyzing growth, these students were responsible for re-plating an original strain onto a new petri dish to isolate pure cultures of bacteria. The re-plate would go back into the incubator for 24 hours, the original plate would be sealed and placed in the fridge. After 24 hours, the re-plate was taken out of the incubator, analyzed and recorded, sealed and placed in the refrigerator.

Before beginning the research, the students composed an email to the senior administrative team requesting permission to perform the study. After receiving permission from the administrative team, the students then created an email for the faculty explaining what their purpose was, the research needed and asked the faculty for their help by allowing the students to swab their ties.

After collecting the data students worked collectively to write the formal laboratory report and literature review to present their results to the faculty and administrative team.

Links:

Collective Google Doc

Tie Survey

Tie Data

Petri Dish Pictures

Photos of Student Work:

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Feed My Starving Children PBL

Last year, I implemented this project-based learning activity, Feed My Starving Children, to accompany my macromolecules unit in 10th-grade biology. Macromolecules can be tedious as they are a bit abstract in nature and the students struggle to find the authentic purpose for studying these, to begin with. As educators, especially science educators, we understand that fundamentally if the students don’t understand what macromolecules are, how they bond, and what functional groups are associated with each, you can’t really comprehensively move forward with cells or cell organelles. So, to make this unit more relevant and applicable to something the students care about, I have created this project-based learning activity to enhance their learning.

Feed My Starving Children is my brain child that pulls in those 21st Century skills that we desperately want for our students to develop. This project requires creativity, collaboration, critical thinking, and communication. This project also enhances the idea of empathic design and responsible global citizenship that I need for my students to walk away with after spending the year in my classroom.

Below I am including a description of the project as well as links to all my materials in the form of Google Docs. If you have any questions about this project or want to try it, please reach out to me as I am happy to help! Good luck!

The outline of the PBL is as follows: (and can be found here)

Project-Based Learning Title: Feed My Starving Children

Grade: 10th

Project idea: The World Food Program is the world’s largest humanitarian agency fighting hunger worldwide. On average, WFP aims to bring food assistance to more than 80 million people in 75 countries. Malnutrition affects millions of people around the world. A third of all deaths in children under the age of 5 in developing countries are linked to undernutrition. WFP’s role in fighting malnutrition is not only to treat it but also to prevent it becoming severe in the first place.

The World Food Program is employing you to design a new nutrient-rich recipe that will be used to feed millions of people worldwide. The price of food and fuel has increased exponentially and the World Heath Organization has had to cut your budget by 18%, which means that you have a total of $1.25 per meal per child. Ideally, you will be able to feed each child 3 times per day. A typical serving portion is 1 cup of prepared food.


DQ:
 How can we feed a child all the recommended macro and micronutrients on $3.75 per day?

Content:
macromolecules (biology), micronutrient recommendations (biology), food insecurity (global perspective), developing nations (geography),
Major Products:

  1. Detailed recipe of ingredients and preparation of foods
  2. The food item you prepared from your recipe
  3. Your written proposal should include: receipts, recipe, and nutritional information about your product, why your product should be selected by the WFP
  4. Nutrition lesson meant for the first-grade level to explain what carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are, where they can be found, and a learning activity for the first graders
  5. Reflection on the project: what did you learn? What did you like/not like? What could I (Mrs. Cooke) do differently next time with this project?

Public Audience: Andy – master chef, Feed More organization, Stop Hunger Now representative, admin/faculty, Collegiate first grade classes, etc…

What I give to the students looks like this (and can be found here):

WFP.jpg

The World Food Program is the world’s largest humanitarian agency fighting hunger worldwide. On average, WFP aims to bring food assistance to more than 80 million people in 75 countries. Malnutrition affects millions of people around the world. A third of all deaths in children under the age of 5 in developing countries are linked to undernutrition. WFP’s role in fighting malnutrition is not only to treat it but also to prevent it becoming severe in the first place.

The World Food Program is employing you to design a new nutrient-rich recipe that will be used to feed millions of people worldwide. The price of food and fuel has increased exponentially and the World Heath Organization has had to cut your budget by 18%, which means that you have a total of $1.25 per meal per child. Ideally, you will be able to feed each child 3 times per day. A typical serving portion is 1 cup of prepared food.

DQ: Is it possible to feed a child all the recommended macro and micronutrients on $3.75 per day?

Here is what you need to focus on:

  1. The recipe must include all daily nutritional dietary needs (both macro and micro nutrients)
  2. The product needs to be as dry as possible to limit microbial growth. Workers/recipients in the field can add milk or water to make a paste.
  3. Food base should be easily grown with limited amounts of processing.
  4. This food needs to taste good, period.

 

You will need to make this food for the class and we will have a taste test at the end of the project. Please submit your receipts so that we know what the actual cost of your product encompasses.

End Products of this Project:

  1. Detailed recipe of ingredients and preparation of foods
  2. The food item you prepared from your recipe
  3. Your written proposal should include: receipts, recipe, and nutritional information about your product, why your product should be selected by the WFP
  4. Nutrition lesson meant for the first-grade level to explain what carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are, where they can be found, and a learning activity for the first graders
  5. Reflection on the project: what did you learn? What did you like/not like? What could I (Mrs. Cooke) do differently next time with this project?

Assessing Student Work

Assessing student work with project-based learning is difficult. If they are invested, interested, and working hard, shouldn’t they all get an ‘A’? Not necessarily. I am still developing my understanding of appropriate assessments for project-based learning and a tie-in with core content. For this unit, the students have a traditional content-based assessment AND they are comprehensively graded on all aspects of the design and presentation of this project. I am including the rubrics and grading tools that I use with this project. If you modify or can think of a different and more effective means of assessment, please let me know.

Feed My Starving Children Rubric

Taste Tester Opinion Ranking Chart

Team Grading Form

Other Supplementals

Here are some additional documents that I use to enhance the understanding as the students work through this process.

Detailed Budget on Excel

Background Nutritional Research

World Food Program Product Guide

World Food Program Specialized Nutrition Sheet

Article on Food Security in Malawi

Here are some pictures of my students and their work

Scholarship Awards In Educational Leadership

 

VCU Scholarships 2016

I was very honored to receive the following two scholarship awards from VCU in Educational Leadership. These scholarships are going to help immensely next year and hopefully in my final year of the program as well. Thanks to the Department of Educational Leadership for giving me this opportunity!

2016                Mary Ann Wright Scholarship in Educational Leadership         Virginia Commonwealth University
This scholarship was endowed in 2014 by Mary Ann Wright (M.Ed.’84, Ph.D. ’97).

2016                Dale Kalkofen Scholarship in Educational Leadership         Virginia Commonwealth University
This scholarship was endowed by Dale Kalkofen (M.Ed. ’76)

Global Education Benchmark Group

Screen Shot 2016-04-17 at 11.24.44 PMI had the distinct pleasure of presenting at GEBG’s annual national conference in New Orleans this past weekend. I was so nervous because it was my first national presentation and I wasn’t sure what to expect, however, the presentation was received so well by so many attendees and I have since received some great feedback about my presentation.

My presentation was entitled Globalizing Your Curriculum: Promoting Global Citizenship by Bringing the World Into Our ClassroomsThe purpose of this presentation was to address teaching global competencies to students and how they are an essential part of being an educator in the 21st century. The benefits of teaching these skills to students and, in turn, future generations are immeasurable. Global education develops a skill of being able to view the world from different lenses; to develop a sense of empathy that is essential as part of the human spirit. The question is, how do we do that? Where do we start? This presentation will give tips on how to incorporate global issues into curriculums with specific examples that have worked in a science classroom. From weekly “hot topics” to in-depth Project-Based Learning initiatives, globalizing your curriculum is a way to expose your students to life outside the walls of their schools and helps to foster curiosity of other cultures and countries. We live in a world that grows smaller every day, as advances in technology have shortened the distance between “us and them”. It’s important for our students to develop the perception that there is unity within diversity and give them a sense of belonging to a larger world community.

As educators, we need to make a commitment to real world learning for our students. We need to provide opportunities for our students that encompass authentic and meaningful learning experiences that will encourage our students to become the solution-seekers and problem-solvers of the 21st century. The development of students as global citizens is a monumental task turned over to the teachers that guide them through the learning process. There is no specific place within our curriculum that speaks specifically to “global education” because it is a fluid and all-encompassing focus that should be interwoven throughout. The question is then, how do I bring the world into my classroom in an authentic and meaningful way?

The secret to globalizing the curriculum is that it can be done in small pieces, one at a time, that add up to a comprehensive world-view by the end of the year. In my curriculum, I set aside time each week for my students to present their “hot topics”. Hot Topics involve any topic pertaining to biology that is new and exciting around the world. The student researches and plans their mini-presentation (as a homework assignment) and is prepared to take questions after they present. Each presentation takes 2 – 3 minutes and inevitably leads to in-depth discussion about a region or the research that was presented.

I also use Project-Based Learning (PBL) activities to incorporate intensive global study. PBL is the tool that allows me to cultivate these essential skills with my students: collaboration, critical thinking, problem solving, communication, and empathy. These skills are what will be useful to our students as they enter the global workforce. It is clear that they will be called upon in the near future to solve immense global challenges, and in preparation for these challenges, I ask them to solve real world problems in a very authentic manner. From designing a cell-based sensor for early detection of an Ebola infection, to creating recipes for the World Food Bank to aide the global food crisis, to using cellular respiration/photosynthesis as a platform to research and propose solutions to our energy problems, my students are thinking, designing, researching, and intelligently proposing solutions to very real world issues.

Because I teach biology and infectious diseases, the entire world has a place in my classroom. When we are talking about Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration, I can ask my students why deforestation in Brazil is negatively affecting Greenland; which allows for discussion of these regions and their ecosystems, the different environmental concerns for each region, global climate change and how much humans are contributing to it, and I can then ask my students to propose a solution to this problem. The Ebola outbreak has been a fantastic case study for my Infectious Diseases class in terms of immunology, epidemiology, socio-economic status and the relationship that has with access to appropriate medical care, medicine, ethics, the geography of Africa and specifically the “malaria belt” and why this area is so prevalent with disease. I ask my students to propose a solution to the late identification of an Ebola sickness or a solution that address the reintroduction of survivors back into their communities. The possibilities are endless when using strategies of project-based learning with students and these projects require a level of critical thinking, empathy, and collaboration from our students that other learning tools simply do not.

I have a number of specific examples that can be modified for immediate use in classrooms across division and subject area. This presentation will cover various strategies for incorporating global awareness into the curriculum that will be beneficial to students but will not be overwhelming for the educator. As with all things, this kind of teaching takes practice but, the difference in the classroom once it is implemented is incredible. The discussions that evolve from this globalization of the curriculum are so valuable to the student and to the educator.

Specific examples that this session addressed:
“Hot Topics” – these are a 2 – 3 minute presentations by the students, on a weekly basis, that discuss a hot topic in science. This is not limited to global issues or research but generally revolves around both

Project-Based Learning Experiences – These projects provide authentic learning experiences for students that require in depth research and understanding of larger global problems that need solutions. PBL examples are:

  • The Ebola Pandemic
  • “Feed My Starving Children” Campaign
  • Human Genetics Disorder Project
  • Photosynthesis: How does deforestation in Brazil affect the poles?
  • Microbial Pathogenesis Paper
  • History of HIV
  • The Malaria Belt in Africa
  • The Flu of 1918 – how an epidemic becomes a pandemic
  • Invasive Species Pop Up Books

Weekly podcasts and discussions – stitcher
Case Studies
Skype
Guest Speakers

This presentation also listed a plethora of ideas for educators to use to globalize their classrooms throughout the year.

Screen Shot 2016-04-17 at 11.20.56 PMScreen Shot 2016-04-17 at 11.21.06 PM

Before I had even left the room, I was already getting supportive tweets from people that attended the session and found it helpful. I had one Head of School from North Carolina ask if his Department Head could contact me to talk about globalizing the curriculum and project based learning. I had another teacher ask if she and some of her colleagues could come observe me teach. And, I had one amazing non-profit group from California ask if I would be willing to consult with them on science curriculum for international trips. All in all, it was a great presentation!

Globalizing Your Curriculum: Promoting Global Citizenship by Bringing the World into Our Classrooms

Global education allows you to view the world from different lenses; to develop a sense of empathy that is essential as part of the human spirit. The question is, how do we do that? Where do we start? This presentation will give tips on how to incorporate global issues into curriculums with specific examples that have worked in a science classroom. From weekly hot topics to in-depth project-based learning initiatives, globalizing your curriculum exposes your students to life outside the walls of their school and helps to foster curiosity of other cultures and countries. It’s important for our students to develop the perception that there is unity within diversity and give them a sense of belonging to a larger world community.

The powerpoint that accompanied this presentation is here. Please feel free to follow up with me regarding questions about the content found within. I am happy to help!